Microbial Safety of Fresh Produce (Institute of Food Technologists Series)

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Journal of Food Protection , 60 1 , 33 — Effect of high hydrostatic pressure on Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas fluorescens strains in ovine milk. Journal of Dairy Science , 80 10 , — Inactivation of Escherichia coli inoculated in liquid whole egg by high hydrostatic pressure. Food Microbiology , 15 3 , — Inactivation of Listeria innocua inoculated in liquid whole egg by high hydrostatic pressure.

Journal of Food Protection , 61 1 , — This effect has been attributed to the higher susceptibility of some proteins to HPP denaturation at low temperatures instead of room temperatures Patterson, Patterson, M. High-pressure treatment of foods. Robinson , C. Patel Eds. New York : Academic Press. Despite the higher inactivation observed at low temperatures, to obtain microbial inactivation that ensures food safety it is more efficient to combine HPP with temperatures above room temperature. By combining moderate HPP treatments with moderate temperatures, an inactivation higher than 5 log10 cycles can be obtained in different pathogenic microorganisms suspended in several types of laboratory media or foods Table 3.

Combinations of HPP and moderate temperatures to reach an inactivation of at least 5 log10 cycles in different pathogenic vegetative microorganisms. When HPP is applied above room temperature, microbial inactivation increases at both nonlethal and lethal temperatures for the microorganisms. At moderate lethal temperatures, the simultaneous application of high pressure and heat is more lethal than the addition of either treatment alone; therefore, the effect of the combination is synergistic Figure 2.

Possible effects obtained by combining different preservation technologies. Figure 2. In general, the kinetics of inactivation of most vegetative cells by HPP at low temperatures show an initial exponential rate followed by pronounced tailing Smelt, Smelt, J. Interaction of hydrostatic pressure, time and temperature of pressurization and pediocin AcH on inactivation of foodborne bacteria.

Another additional advantage to this combination is that although at room temperature microbial resistance to HPP is very variable, the variation in pressure resistance between different microbial species or between different strains of the same species is much lower when HPP is combined with temperature Alpas et al. Variation in resistance to hydrostatic pressure among strains of food-borne pathogens.

Applied and Environmental Microbiology , 65 9 , — Initiation of germination and inactivation of Bacillus pumilus spores by hydrostatic pressure. Journal of Bacteriology , 97 2 , — Initiation of germination of bacterial spores by hydrostatic pressure. Microbiology , 60 3 , — Comparative study of pressure-induced germination of Bacillus subtilis spores at low and high pressures. Applied and Environmental Microbiology , 64 9 , — Both initiation of germination and inactivation of bacterial spores by HPP are greatly enhanced at raised temperatures Gould, Gould, G.

Inactivation of spores in food by combined heat and hydrostatic pressure. Acta Aliment , 2, — Initiation of Bacillus spore germination by hydrostatic pressure: Effect of temperature. Journal of Bacteriology , 3 , — Sporulation temperature affects initiation of germination and inactivation by high hydrostatic pressure of Bacillus.

Improving the Safety of Fresh Fruit and Vegetables

Journal of Applied Microbiology , 85, 17 — As germinated spores lose their exceptional resistance to physico-chemical agents, the pressure-germinated spores may be inactivated by HPP treatment or by some other treatments such as heat or irradiation at moderate intensities. In order to inactivate bacterial spores at moderate temperatures, the application of a pasteurization treatment subsequent to HPP has been proposed Cheftel, Cheftel, J.

Review: High-pressure, microbial inactivation and food preservation. Food Science and Technology International , 1 2—3 , 75 — Appreciable inactivation of bacterial spores can be obtained by combining HPP with heat in continuous or cycling treatments Table 4. Combinations of HPP and moderate temperatures to reach an inactivation of at least 5 log10 cycles in different bacterial spores.

Inactivation of vegetative forms of yeast and moulds with HPP in combination with moderate temperatures has been scarcely studied because of their low pressure resistance at room temperature Ogawa et al. Combined effect of high hydrostatic pressure and water activity on Zygosaccharomyces bailii inhibition. Letters in Applied Microbiology , 24, — Concurrent effects of high hydrostatic pressure, acidity and heat on the destruction and injury of yeasts. Journal of Food Protection , 58 3 , — Journal of Food Safety , 18 1 , 57 — Inactivation of Zygosaccharomyces bailii in fruit juices by heat, high hydrostatic pressure and pulsed electric fields.

Journal of Food Science , 63 6 , — High pressure inactivation of Byssochlamys nivea Ascospores and other heat resistant moulds. It has been demonstrated at laboratory scale that the combination of HPP with moderate temperatures is an effective means to increase microbial inactivation. However, application of this combination at an industrial scale could encounter some technical limitations.

One of the major advantages of the HPP process is that the treatment is homogeneous because the pressure is transmitted uniformly and instantaneously inside the pressure vessel. As heat transmission does not involve these properties, the application of uniform treatments when HPP treatments are combined with moderate heating is a technical challenge.

Pulsed electric fields PEF have been reported as a promising technology for cold pasteurization of liquid products; however, spore inactivation using this technology is not feasible so far. In a study conducted using spores of Bacillus subtilis in different chemical solutions such as 0. Results showed that PEF by itself was not able to inactivate spores, but high pressure was able to reduce some spore counts.

However, when the treatments were combined, two different trends were observed. First, when PEF was applied followed by high pressure, the reduction of spores was possible up to 7 log, especially in the buffer solution. However, when the treatment was initiated by high pressure followed by PEF, the reduction was not observed, even though the reactivation of spores was reported.

The efficacy of PEF followed by high pressure is related to the presence of cracks on the spore surface generated by the electric field and the subsequent rupture of the cell due to the elevated pressure. In the opposite case high pressure followed by PEF , some spore inactivation was observed because of the elevated pressure, but when PEF was applied, the electric fields favoured the spore germination and promoted the growth of H-spores. Inactivation of Bacillus subtilis spores by a combination of hydrostatic high-pressure and pulsed electric field treatments.

It is interesting to see that even the order of the processes could not have a significant effect on cell inactivation; the mechanisms of inactivation need to be understood and taken into account in order to successfully combine two or more processes. Application of high-pressure processing HPP has shown significant potential and realized success as an emerging technology in the food industry in terms of assuring safety and quality attributes to that of thermal treatment, while at the same time maintains food freshness, taste, flavour and nutrition which produce greater quality products.

HPP application can inactivate microorganisms and mycotoxins and modify structures, with little or no effect on the nutritional and sensory quality of foods. As summarized in this review, HPP can be an effective means of degradation of some type of mycotoxins such as patulin and citrinin; however, the optimal conditions have yet to be determined and may depend in part on the properties of the food product.

Future development should focus on determining the nature and safety of chemicals produced from the breakdown of these mycotoxins in treatment techniques. Despite all the advantages, food processors still face challenges in the form of extremely resistant bacterial spores. However, immense possibilities have been shown by combining HPP with other alternative treatments for use as a hurdle technology to increase inactivation effects.

Even though opportunities clearly exist for innovative applications, further and complementary research related to the above HPP issues would undoubtedly contribute to continued development and innovation in this technology where conventional methods fail to yield satisfying results. Information regarding the success of current food manufacturers and companies employing HPP technology can encourage other companies to realize the potential of HPP and the many benefits it can provide to both the consumer and industry, either alone or in combination with other processes as an alternative to thermal processing.

It is considered that a special stress ought to be provided to HPP conditions pressure, holding time, and temperature to optimize in each case in order to enhance sensory and nutritional values, rather than extrapolating the findings made with any one species for all others. HPP has relatively better preservation of nutrients, but there still needs further investigation to clearly understand its effect at different operating conditions.

It is also necessary to compile data in order to clarify the role of HP towards toxicity, allergenicity, loss of digestibility and the eating quality of foods.

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Furthermore, most researches are limited only to very few kinds of mycotoxins decontamination and future investigations could be carried out on the effect of HPP on other toxic metabolites and their degradation mechanisms. The authors declare no conflict of interest. Table 1. Table 3.

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Table 4. Skip to Main Content. Search in: This Journal Anywhere. Advanced search. Submit an article Journal homepage. View further author information. Article: Received 05 Apr Download citation CrossMark. In this article Close Abstract 1. Introduction 2. HPP equipment and processes 3. Microbial and mycotoxins control using HPP 4. HPP integrated technologies 5. Conclusion and future outlook References.

Review Article. Introduction There is a rising consumer demand for fresh and minimally processed foods with preserved nutritional and sensory qualities that can be kept for extended periods of time without compromising safety.


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HPP equipment and processes 2. Principle of HPP The governing principles of HPP are based on the assumption that foods which experience HP in a vessel follow the isostatic rule regardless of the size or shape of the food. Work inputs and mode of operations In the basic HPP operation of foods, product to be treated will be loaded to a high-pressure chamber, and it will be filled with the pressure-transmitting fluid. Microbial and mycotoxins control using HPP 3. Published online: 11 June CSV Display Table. Mycotoxin control Mycotoxins are toxic secondary metabolites produced by fungi that present a potential hazard regarding food safety.

Figure 1. Display full size. Table 2. HPP integrated technologies In general, the safety and stability of food are not based on one factor only but on a combination of several factors. Combination of HPP with moderate temperatures The aim of nonthermal technologies is to destroy the microorganisms in foods and at the same time produce a product that is safe and stable with the least amount of damage to the sensory and nutritional properties.

Combination of HPP with pulsed electric fields Pulsed electric fields PEF have been reported as a promising technology for cold pasteurization of liquid products; however, spore inactivation using this technology is not feasible so far. Conclusion and future outlook Application of high-pressure processing HPP has shown significant potential and realized success as an emerging technology in the food industry in terms of assuring safety and quality attributes to that of thermal treatment, while at the same time maintains food freshness, taste, flavour and nutrition which produce greater quality products.

Conflict of interest The authors declare no conflict of interest. References Acar, J. Additional information Author information Henock Woldemichael Woldemariam. Shimelis Admassu Emire. Funding This review article did not receive any specific grant from funding agencies in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors.

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