U.S. Cultural Exchanges in Austria since the 1980s: Austropop - A Transcultural Style

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But by reading about it and rethinking the concepts of culture and national identity and also the ideas behind Austropop and Ostbahn-Kurti, I have gained constructive insights into Austrian culture and have learned to appreciate Austropop and what it stands for. In this paper, I have tried to describe what a cultural transformation can be, using Austropop as a specifically Austrian example. Their contributions and the critical class debates were necessary in order to understand cultural exchanges in a German speaking context. Going back in history and reconsidering the roots of certain developments can shed light on the reasons for their existence, as in the case of Austropop.

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Therefore, I have added a short history of Austropop that focuses more on the how and why than on its actors. In chapter three, I have analyzed a particular Austropop artist and compared him to his American 'counterpart' and pointed out the differences, similarities and especially novelties that came to life through a cultural exchange. Through this paper I have not only gained further insights into cultural studies and the cultural transformations that surround us, but also into the Austrian culture, the culture I consider myself part of, that often seems too close and therefore everything seems to be obvious.

By distancing myself from this culture and viewing it from a different perspective, I have become aware of the fact that not everything is what it seems and that some cultural assets need to reviewed and analyzed in order to be fully understood. Austropop, as the name implies, is a specifically Austrian phenomenon. Its name, the combination of Austro- and -pop, short for popular, gives already away some of its meaning.

Even if 'popular culture' normally includes all forms of artistic expression, in the case of Austropop is it mainly associated with popular music produced in Austria, by Austrian artists or artists living in Austria. It is a particular form of popular music that has emerged around as a product of the a greater cultural influence from abroad and the student protest movement, and although the student movement did not prevail, it did at least continue to exercise some influence over the first generation of Austropop artists like Wolfgang Ambros and Georg Danzer.

Later Austropop artists including Ostbahn-Kurti or Jazz-Gitti were less connected to the student and protest surroundings, although they did express some sort of social criticism or comment.

Larkey, This transcultural style is a mix of new, imported styles of music, fashion, art, etc. Through this melange, a new style is created. And subsequently, these new styles have influence on the domestic culture and society. Therefore, reception should be considered a creative process, not a one-way street. As mentioned above, the reception process is highly creative and involves the selection of particular ideas that the audiences like and want to apply and adapt themselves. This selection leads to phase 2 of the model. By imitating and copying the foreign cultural styles, the local artists can make themselves acquainted with novelties and continue the selection process.

To attract new audiences, the innovations need to be put into the local context, for example by adapting the language, which happens in phase 3. This process of de-anglicization can be seen as a crucial step in the course of the full establishment of the foreign musical style and its innovations in the domestic music. It is also the phase in which first groupings around the new musical styles occur that are negotiating their place in the domestic scene, e. In this fourth and final step, the new musical style is being fully imported and adapted to the local cultural circumstances and becomes an accepted cultural asset of the local culture, challenging the dominant culture.

This model of diffusion can be easily applied to any cultural exchange, especially concerning music and the arts. However, it is important to keep in mind that a cultural exchange does not function one way or according to Adorno, can be described as a 'cultural imperialism' - one culture imposing itself on the other and slowly superseding the local culture.

Rather it comes to an adaption and re-interpretation of cultural assets, a mingling of something new from abroad and the pre-existing old, as described by Larkey. For Austropop, it was mainly the contact with English speaking countries and their music that triggered its development. The idea of America, the imaginary America, has a long tradition that has its roots in America's discovery and the myths that arose with it. America became a place in the mind of people, an Eden, a place where one could start all over again and everyone could make it.

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